Application of Carbon Black: Rubber Carbon Black

Author : Clirik

 People who understand carbon black know that carbon black is divided into "reinforced carbon black", "conductive carbon black", "wear-resistant carbon black" and so on. Carbon black can be used as a black dye, used in the manufacture of ink, paint, etc., and can also be applied to chemical fibers and plastics... In fact, the industry with the largest amount of carbon black is still the rubber industry, so what is the role of carbon black on rubber? Clirik has the answer.


What is Rubber Carbon Black?

First and foremost, it is crucial to comprehend the nature of rubber carbon black. Rubber carbon black refers to a specific category of carbon black products primarily employed in the manufacturing of rubber goods, possessing distinct statistical and standardized characteristics. It represents a relatively specialized variant of carbon black predominantly utilized in ink production, coatings application, among others. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that rubber carbon black can also find utility in coloring plastic products and other items throughout the manufacturing process.


 rubber tire

Rubber containing carbon black is extensively utilized in the tire and rubber industry due to its capacity to enhance the performance of rubber products. Carbon black functions as a reinforcing agent, significantly augmenting the wear resistance, tensile strength, tear strength, and abrasion resistance of rubber materials.In tires, carbon black plays a pivotal role in enhancing their durability and longevity. By incorporating carbon black into the rubber compound, tires become more resilient against wear caused by friction with road surfaces. This reinforcement also aids in improving traction and grip on both wet and dry roads, thereby ensuring safer driving conditions.


Apart from tires, various other rubber products derive benefits from the addition of carbon black. For instance, conveyor belts used in industries rely on this additive for increased strength and resistance against tearing or stretching under heavy loads. Similarly, automotive hoses necessitate high wear resistance to withstand constant exposure to heat and chemicals.The amount of rubber employed in different applications varies depending on specific requirements. In some cases where maximum wear resistance is required (such as mining equipment), higher concentrations of carbon black are utilized. Conversely, semi-reinforced rubbers find application in less demanding scenarios where moderate reinforcement suffices.


Overall, through its reinforcing properties combined with raw rubber compounds at varying ratios ranging from 20% to 70%, carbon black significantly contributes to enhancing the performance characteristics of numerous rubber products across diverse industries.


The Application of Carbon Black In Rubber Industry

The demand for carbon black in the rubber industry has been steadily increasing over the years. This versatile material plays a crucial role in enhancing the performance and durability of various rubber products. Apart from tires, carbon black is extensively used in manufacturing conveyor belts, gaskets, seals, O-rings, and other industrial rubber components.


application of carbon black 

In tire production alone, carbon black accounts for approximately 90% of its total production. The unique properties of carbon black make it an ideal reinforcing agent for tires as it improves their strength, abrasion resistance, and overall lifespan. Each car tire typically requires around 10 kilograms of carbon black to achieve optimal performance on different road surfaces.


carbon black use in rubber 


Furthermore, about three-quarters of all rubber carbon black is utilized specifically for tire manufacturing purposes. The remaining portion finds its application in a wide range of other rubber products such as tapes used in electrical insulation or packaging materials. Rubber hoses that are essential components in automotive systems also rely on the reinforcement provided by carbon black to withstand high-pressure conditions effectively. Industries like construction heavily rely on rubber products containing carbon black additives due to their excellent weathering resistance and ability to endure harsh environmental conditions. Rubber shoes with enhanced durability owe their longevity to the incorporation of this material during their manufacturing process.


Within the rubber products industry as a whole, approximately 40% to 50% of total rubber consumption can be attributed to the utilization of carbon black. Its widespread use across various sectors highlights its indispensability and contribution towards improving product quality and longevity while meeting diverse consumer needs worldwide.


The Effect of Carbon Black on Rubber

The high concentration of carbon black in rubber is attributed to its exceptional reinforcing ability, which was initially discovered in natural gels as early as 1914. It has been established that for synthetic rubber, the reinforcing effect of carbon black plays an even more crucial role. The most significant manifestation of this reinforcement is the improvement in tire tread wear performance; a tire containing 30% reinforced carbon black can travel distances ranging from 4.8 to 64,000 kilometers, while using inert or non-reinforcing filler instead of carbon black only allows for a driving distance of 4,800 kilometers. Furthermore, reinforced carbon black can also enhance the tensile strength and tear resistance of rubber products along with other physical and mechanical properties. For example, when added to crystalline rubbers like natural or neoprene rubber, reinforced carbon black can increase their tensile strength by up to 1.7 times compared to vulcanized rubber without any carbon black; whereas in non-crystalline rubbers such as styrene butadiene or nitrile rubber it can be increased by about four to twelve times.


What is The Impact of Carbon Black Properties on Rubber Properties?

(1) The Properties of rubber are related to the chemical activity of carbon black

The chemical activity of carbon black plays a crucial role in enhancing its properties. Experimental findings have demonstrated that carbon black with high chemical activity exerts a significant enhancement effect, whereas carbon black with low chemical activity (such as graphitized carbon black) exhibits minimal enhancement potential. This disparity arises from the fact that carbon black with higher chemical activity possesses an increased number of surface active sites and forms a more extensive network structure when reacting with rubber molecules during the refining and vulcanization process, consequently leading to stronger binding between the carbon black and rubber. Therefore, the chemical activity of carbon black is considered to be the fundamental factor influencing its enhancement performance, often referred to as the primary determinant affecting the enhancement performance of carbon black.


(2) The effect of carbon black particle size on rubber

The presence of active sites on the surface of carbon black enables smaller particles to possess a larger specific surface area and a higher density of active sites per unit mass.This facilitates superior chemical bonding and physical adsorption between carbon black and rubber, leading to enhanced reinforcement effects. Consequently, the particle size of carbon black serves as the second influential factor impacting its reinforcing performance.

The smaller the particle size of carbon black, the lower the tensile strength, tearing strength, constant elongation stress, and wear resistance of vulcanizate become. Moreover, higher hardness enhances bending and cracking resistance while reducing resilience and elongation at break. However, excessively small particle size can lead to caking due to interparticle cohesion during the mixing process, thereby diminishing plasticity and compression performance.


(3) The relationship between the structure of carbon black and rubber properties

The structural properties of carbon black, known as the shape factor, are the third influencing factor on its reinforcement performance. This is due to its highly complex polymelt structure with numerous branches and large internal gaps. When blended with rubber, it exhibits a higher affinity for rubber (or inclusive rubber). The fixed elongation stress in vulcanized rubber arises from the resistance to deformation provided by the polymelt form of carbon black on absorbed molecular chains of rubber. The enhancement function is reflected through improvements in properties such as hardness. Furthermore, the formation of retained rubber significantly contributes to enhancing dispersion and extrusion performance during the mixing process.


Carbon Black Grinding Mill Recommended

According to the above statement, the reinforcing property of carbon black on rubber is closely related to the particle size of carbon black. Therefore, it becomes crucial to select an appropriate equipment capable of processing ultrafine powder. In this regard, Clirik, a professional research and manufacturing company specializing in grinding equipment, has developed the CLUM ultra-fine vertical grinding mill which proves to be highly suitable for processing carbon black.


The CLUM ultra-fine vertical grinding mill stands out due to its advanced technology and exceptional performance. It adopts a unique design that allows for efficient and precise grinding of materials with different hardness levels. With its high-speed rotation and adjustable fineness control system, this machine ensures consistent particle size distribution while maintaining excellent product quality.


CLUM ultra-fine vertical grinding mill offers several advantages in terms of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Its innovative structure minimizes energy consumption during operation, resulting in cost savings for users. Additionally, it incorporates a dust collection system that effectively captures fine particles generated during the grinding process, reducing air pollution and ensuring a clean working environment.


Furthermore, Clirik's commitment to continuous improvement is reflected in their dedication towards research and development activities. They constantly strive to enhance their products by incorporating cutting-edge technologies and addressing customer feedback. This approach enables them to provide customers with reliable equipment that meets their specific requirements.


ultrafine vertical grinding mill 

CLUM Ultrafine Vertical Grinding Mill

Capacity: 1-20 t/h

Feed Size: 20 mm

Powder Fineness: 300-3000 mesh


The CLUM series ultrafine vertical roller grinding machine is developed and manufactured by Clirik Micro Powder Technology Co., Ltd. based on extensive experience in producing equipment for ultra-fine powder processing, combined with customer requirements for powder processing. In comparison to traditional mine grinding processing equipment used previously, the CLUM series ultrafine vertical roller grinding machine effectively reduces the likelihood of secondary grinding and minimizes losses of raw materials and electricity. The entire machine is constructed using highly wear-resistant steel, which helps to reduce maintenance costs and expenses related to part replacement. Through continuous optimization and improvement of each component, the vertical mill exhibits exceptional reliability while minimizing downtime. The intelligent processing process employed by the CLUM series ultra-fine vertical roller mill enables long-term material grinding that leads to increased revenue.


Mill Advantages

1. Adjust freely. The CLUM series ultra-fine vertical roller mill allows for flexible adjustment of the powder fineness to be processed, ranging from 325 mesh to 3000 mesh.


2. High productivity. Our optimized CLUM series of ultra-fine vertical roller grinders enhance the grinding efficiency of the equipment by improving the grinding wheel, flow guide system, and internal circulation system. Compared with traditional grinding equipment, it can increase production by 10-20%.


3. Low operating cost. The grading wheel of the CLUM series ultrafine vertical roller mill is made of wear-resistant material and undergoes a heat treatment process, resulting in an extended service life. The wearing parts of the grinding wheels and disks are made from wear-resistant alloys to withstand severe wear conditions during barite and talc processing. This reduces replacement costs for wearing parts and minimizes maintenance downtime for users.


4. Be smart. The CLUM series ultra-fine vertical roller mill adopts PLC control and touch screen operation to achieve automatic operation of the vertical mill production line. It can display real-time operational data such as speed, temperature, pressure, and pressure difference while also saving them as records. By collecting data on pressure, pressure difference, current at each point, automatic feeding can be realized. Automatic operation simplifies complex operations in vertical mills while enabling remote control, remote fault analysis,and troubleshooting through internet connection for data analysis purposes.

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