Carbon black or black carbon

Author : Clirik

 Carbon black is neither soot nor black carbon. "Soot" and "black carbon" are not found in fires and carbon-containing fuels (such as waste oil, fuel oil, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, coal, coal tar pitch, oil shale, wood, paper, rubber, plastics and resins) The two most common names for emissions from complete combustion. These emissions contain some elemental carbon, but also a large amount of organic matter and other compounds. "Soot" refers to particles of higher carbon content produced by various combustion processes, of which diesel exhaust is the main source of urban soot. The term "black carbon" is used to describe carbonaceous particulate matter suspended in urban or ambient air as measured in many recent environmental and indoor particulate matter studies. Carbon black is almost entirely composed of pure elemental carbon (>97%), while soot is a substance formed from different components, with an elemental carbon content of less than 60% and containing a large amount of inorganic impurities (ash and metals) and organic carbon. state. Carbon black typically contains less than 1% extractable organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In contrast, soot particles are composed of more than 50% of various organics and may include high concentrations of metals and PAH, depending on the raw materials. For example, diesel exhaust soot particles are typically composed of an elemental carbon core encased in nitrogen-containing organics and PAH.
Carbon black has a morphological character of a hierarchy: particles (ie, primary particles), aggregates, and agglomerates. The basic components of carbon black are primary particles, which are hardly isolated in isolation, but are strongly fused into aggregates by covalent bonds. Primary particles are essentially a concept. After the formation of aggregates, the primary particles no longer exist, they are no longer discrete, and there are no physical boundaries. After the individual aggregates are formed, they are combined by van der Waals forces to form agglomerates. Unless sufficient force (such as shear) is applied, the agglomerates do not break down into smaller components. The size of the primary particles and aggregates is a distributed nature that varies with the carbon black species. Transmission electron micrographs show that although the primary particle and aggregate size are quite different in a given carbon black variety, the primary particle size is substantially uniform in a single aggregate.

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